Wrapper block

Wrapper block is a strategy in Substrate to allow it processing blocks that were not originally designed with Substrate in mind.

Background and overview

In general, blockchains implemented in Substrate only have to implement the Block trait. It then can be used in most Substrate libraries, as they only make asumptions on the trait. However, completely implementing the trait from scratch is not simple, so Substrate also provides a generic Block struct that implements the Block trait.

Substrate makes some assumptions about terminologies. Block header data is always either directly from state processing, or sealable by consensus engines. All external inputs are put in block bodies, groupped as "extrinsics", where unsigned ones are called "inherents", and signed ones are called "transactions". This design sometimes cannot directly be translated from blockchains that weren’t designed with Substrate in mind. For example, Ethereum’s block extra data is an unsigned external input, where in Substrate’s design should be placed as inherents, yet it’s in Ethereum’s block header.

Wrapper block is a strategy in Substrate to make those blockchains work with Substrate easily. For any "external block" on those blockchains, a wrapper block is created, which has a strict one-to-one mapping with the external block. Substrate then mainly works with the wrapper blocks, communicating with other Substrate nodes using those wrapper blocks. When external operation is needed, for example, to communicate with a non-Substrate node, the wrapper block is converted back to a external block.

Substrate generic block

The generic block header in Substrate contains the parent hash, number, state root, extrinsics root, and additional header digests. The generic block contains the block header, and data of extrinsics.

Conversion and extra information

The two-way conversion of external blocks and wrapper blocks should be strictly one-to-one mapping. However, the conversion is not required to be cheap, meaning wrapper blocks can contain extra information in Substrate’s state.

Given a wrapper block, and the corresponding Substrate state, the node must be able to produce an external block. Given an external block, the node must be able to locate the parent external block’s corresponding wrapper block, import the external block and produce a new wrapper block.

Support in Substrate

For wrapper blocks to work, some notable features in Substrate needed are:

• Child trie: External blocks' state processing logic is something that must be followed, and one of the most important thing in those logic is how external blocks' state roots are calculated. Child trie feature in Substrate allows extra merkle trie structure, different than the main one used in Substrate, to be defined.

• Custom indexing: Given an external block hash, Substrate node must be able to locate the wrapper block, if it has already been imported. Note that this feature has not yet been implemented.

Substrate pallets

Substrate has the pallet framework which significantly simplifies runtime development. However, when using wrapper block strategy, pallets usually cannot be used.

Limitations

• Performance: It is understandable that because of the existence of wrapper block, it adds slight overhead and impacts performance.

• Consensus validation: The seal of the wrapper block has the pre-hash of the external block. As a result, while the seal can be pre-validated against its pre-hash, it cannot be pre-validated against the full header, if the external block is not yet known. This can however be simply fixed, by communicating the wrapper block alongside the external block.

Ethereum

This section is an example how the wrapper block strategy can be used to process Ethereum blocks.

Block and extrinsic definitions

The wrapper block header is defined as follows:

• Number: Block number, the same in the wrapper block and the external block.

• State root: Wrapper block’s state root.

• Extrinsics root: Wrapper block’s extrinsics root.

• Digests: Contains the block difficulty and PoW seal data.

The following inherent extrinsics are defined:

• Timestamp: Current block’s timestamp.

• Gas limit: Block’s gas limit.

• Coinbase: Block author information.

• Uncles: Block uncle data.

• External parent hash: External block’s parent hash.

Transaction extrinsics are the same as transactions in the external blocks.

Runtime state

The runtime state contains the following keys:

• Receipts: List of transaction receipts processed in current block.

• Bloom: The logs bloom of the current block.

• Gas used: Gas used information of the current block.

• State: The entire world state of the Ethereum block, stored in a child trie, using Ethereum merkle trie data structure.

Convert wrapper blocks to external blocks

To reconstruct the external block from the corresponding wrapper block:

• Retrieve parent hash, uncles, coinbase, transactions, gas limit, timestamp and extra data from extrinsics.

• Retrieve world state root, receipts, bloom and gas used from Substrate state.

• Retrieve difficulty, number and seal from header.

Runtime processing

The processing rules contain the following steps, assuming an external block E is received:

• Upon finished processing the previous block (or the genesis block), its external block’s hash is indexed.

• Use the external block’s parent hash as the index, to locate the parent wrapper block WP.

• Create an empty wrapper block W, set its parent hash to WP’s hash, and number to the next integer of WP’s number. Copy E’s difficulty and PoW seal data to digests.

• Copy E’s timestamp, gas limit, coinbase and uncles as W’s inherent extrinsics.

• Copy E’s transaction as W’s transaction extrinsics.

At this time we have a wrapper block ready for runtime processing:

• Validate each transactions' signature, execute EVM, produce receipts and update receipt list, bloom and gas used in Substrate’s state.

• Process Ethereum’s block finalization rules.

• Update W’s state root and extrinsics root.

For consensus engine:

• Prior to runtime processing of W, if the external block is in hand, validate the header against the difficulty and the seal. If not, validate the pre-hash against the difficulty and the seal.

• After runtime processing of W, if the external block was not available, reconstruct the external block, and validate the header against the difficulty and the seal.