Table of contents

Leaky abstraction of gas

Due to the immutable nature of Ethereum, Hyrum’s Law applies firmly. With a sufficient number of users of an API, it does not matter what you promise in the contract — all observable behaviors of your system will be depended on by somebody. One such area where Hyrum’s Law has significant impact is gas metering. Because of gas mis-pricing, we frequently need to change opcode’s gas costs. However, if those gas costs are depended on by on-chain smart contracts already, changing it can break things. This is well-demonstrated by EIP-1884. As a result, many attempts has been made, including in 39-UNGAS, to make gas an unobservable behavior for smart contracts,

In this article, we show that based on current account models of Ethereum, gas metering is a leaky abstraction. It’s impossible to completely hide the effects of gas cost, with or without account versioning. Even if retracting gas cost is hard, according to Hyrum’s Law, smart contracts will still choose to depend on it, if they can, and thus results in unexpected breakage.

Gas cost deduction from account balance

The essence of the leaky abstraction is from the observation that gas cost has to interact with transaction fees, and thus interact with account balance. Account balance must be an observable variable in smart contracts. This is where gas information can leak.

Consider, even if we removed all the observable behavior of gas metering within EVM, the contract can still calculate the difference of account balances between two calls to know the transaction fee. If the gas price is known, the contract can then know the total gas used value. This, combined with single-opcode contracts, allows a contract to build the complete gas table of the current hard fork, and thus emulate the full functionality of gas used.

With account versioning, the gas cost deduction is still doable. This is due to the fact that older account versions can still call newer account versions. The contract can call a proxy contract, and then use the techniques described above to obtain the current gas table.

The issue of gas cost deduction is not fixable even with account versioning because contracts have to access states. Because of transaction fees, the information of gas cost is inevitably leaked to EVM.

Reasonable backward and forward compatibility

Leaky abstraction of gas results in that complete backward and forward compatibility is impossible — it’s always possible to design smart contracts that work right now, but won’t work in the future when some gas costs change. This, however, does not stop one to have reasonable backward and forward compatibility.

To design reasonable compatibility, we ask this question — given a smart contract, execute it without gasometer at all, does it always emit the same result as with gasometer given sufficient gases? If we make sure gas is exposed in smart contracts as information, not as a mechanism of execution, then the question can be answered yes. Currently, we do have places where opcodes use gases as mechanisms of execution, specifically, in EVM error handling. Eliminating them as described in 57-UNERR will allow us to accomplish reasonable compatibility.

On the other hand, GAS opcode exposes gas used information solely as information, and thus removing it is not necessary to accomplish reasonable compatibility.