Table of contents


Sedbin is a concept of proof of work blockchain with shared security. Similar to merge mining, it allows multiple blockchains to use the same source of PoW, thus increases the security and better protects against 51% attack. Sedbin, however, has a smaller seal size, and requires much less logic changes to participating blockchains. It also enables security sharing for three or more blockchains, instead of just two in the situation of merge mining.

Sedbin is also permissionless, in terms of participating blockchains. They can join or leave any sedbin at any times. Low miner participation of a participating blockchain will results in larger seal proof size, and longer block time. However, the security of any participating blockchain will not be impacted.

Participating blockchains function by itself, and do not require additional data from master blockchain for validation.


Sedbin consists of a master blockchain, and a number of participating blockchains. Those participating blockchains uses master blockchain’s proof of work, and shares security.

Master blockchain’s header contains a trie root, in which a trie structure allows list of arbitrary data to be recorded. Those data are expected to be the pre-hash of participating blockchain’s block. Once a pre-hash is recorded in master blockchain’s header, participating blockchains can use that header to generate a valid seal, and produce a new block.

It is expected that there are multiple sedbins. Each sedbin has a particular PoW mining algorithm, a difficulty adjustment algorithm, and a fork choice rule. All participating blockchains of one sedbin shares the same mining algorithm and block time.

No coins are involved in master blockchain. The incentive for mining master blockchain is solely for the rewards of all participating blockchains.


For a sedin, define Hash, which is the hash output type, given the hash function used on the master blockchain. We then define the header structure for master blockchain, encoded in SCALE.

struct Header {
  parent_hash: Hash,
  data_root: Hash,
  seal: Seal,

Seal is a data structure specific for a sedbin, used to encode the proof of work. For example, a common seal structure would be (nonce, difficulty, work).

data_root is a binary merkle tree. The top-level merkle tree is expected to a list. The first item is the actual list root, and the second item encodes the list size. It then records the pre-hashes together with all the actual data.

For sedbin to work, it’s important to ensure data availability. To do this, we encode all intermediate nodes in the binary merkle tree with prefix 0x01, and all leaf nodes in the binary merkle tree with prefix 0x00.

The master blockchain also defines its own difficulty adjustment rules and fork choice rules.

For a participating blockchain, it can generate its seal as followed, once its pre-hash is recorded in the master blockchain.

struct ParticipatingSeal {
  skipped: Vec<Header>,
  master: Header,
  index: u32,
  proofs: Vec<Hash>,

skipped is a list of headers that has been skipped since last block on participating blockchain. master is the current block of master blockchain where the pre-hash is recorded. index and proofs form a normal binary merkle tree proof.

If participating blockchain’s pre-hash has a different size compared with Hash on master blockchain, then first hash the pre-hash (using master blockchain’s hash algorithm).

Participating blockchain’s fork choice is as follows — choose the current canonical chain on master blockchain, find participating blockchain’s block pre-hashes on the chain, skipping any invalid or unknown data on the master blockchain.


Below we define some concrete sedbins with given PoW algorithm, difficulty adjustment rules and fork choice rules.

Ethash Sedbin

With Hash being H256, mining algorithm being Ethash. Seal being Ethash seal with difficulty (nonce: H64, difficulty: U256, mix_hash: H256). The difficulty adjustment algorithm being the one with EIP-100 applied. Use largest total difficulty as the fork choice rule.

RandomX Sedbin

With Hash being H256, mining algorithm being RandomX. Seal being the data structure (difficulty: U256, work: H256, nonce: H256).

The difficulty adjustment algorithm takes DIFFICULTY_ADJUST_WINDOW block’s block time:

pub fn damp(actual: u128, goal: u128, damp_factor: u128) -> u128 {
  (actual + (damp_factor - 1) * goal) / damp_factor

pub fn clamp(actual: u128, goal: u128, clamp_factor: u128) -> u128 {
  max(goal / clamp_factor, min(actual, goal * clamp_factor))

fn difficulty(
  past_data: &[DifficultyAndTimestamp; DIFFICULTY_ADJUST_WINDOW]
) -> U256 {
  let mut ts_delta = 0;
  for i in 1..(DIFFICULTY_ADJUST_WINDOW as usize) {
    let prev = data[i - 1].map(|d| d.timestamp);
    let cur = data[i].map(|d| d.timestamp);

    let delta = match (prev, cur) {
      (Some(prev), Some(cur)) => cur.saturating_sub(prev),
      _ => BLOCK_TIME_MSEC.into(),
    ts_delta += delta;

  if ts_delta == 0 {
    ts_delta = 1;

  let mut diff_sum = U256::zero();
  for i in 0..(DIFFICULTY_ADJUST_WINDOW as usize) {
    let diff = match data[i].map(|d| d.difficulty) {
      Some(diff) => diff,
      None => InitialDifficulty::get(),
    diff_sum += diff;

  if diff_sum < U256::from(MIN_DIFFICULTY) {
    diff_sum = U256::from(MIN_DIFFICULTY);

  let adj_ts = clamp(

      diff_sum * U256::from(BLOCK_TIME_MSEC) / U256::from(adj_ts)))