Table of contents


Core Paper of Ethereum aims at providing an overview of Ethereum Virtual Machine, and available enhancements that can be applied on Ethereum and Ethereum Classic blockchains.


Currently, we cherry-pick some pressing issues on Ethereum, and attempt to provide an overview of all available proposals falling under those categories.

  • Backward Compatibility: Backward compatibility enhancements such as account versioning, versionless EVM, and BEGINDATA opcode.

  • Error Handling: Unrecoverable and recoverable error handlings.

  • Feature Upgrade: Hard fork, soft fork, and processes for gathering opinions on whether a hard fork or soft fork should proceed.

  • Mining Algorithms: Switching mining algorithms and related issues.

On this page

  • Backward compatibility: Overview of backward compatibility issues in Ethereum and Ethereum Classic.
  • Error handling: Error handling issues in Ethereum.
  • Ethereum Virtual Machine: This provides a definition of Ethereum Virtual Machine that is modular. This enables reusing the EVM definition for projects outside of Ethereum-like blockchains.
  • Metering: Gas metering in Ethereum is used to calculate the cost of a particular contract execution. This article discusses improvements we can do to make metering better.
  • Mining algorithms: Switching mining algorithms and related issues.
  • State growth: State growth, storage rent, stateless client and other related issues.
  • Feature upgrade: Overview of feature upgrade process and related issues in Ethereum and Ethereum Classic.