Table of contents

Polkadot staking

The section documents Polkadot’s staking election situations, problems and discussions about potential solutions.


In recent days, Polkadot’s staking election algorithm wasn’t working really as expected. Polkadot suffered two out-of-memory (OOM) incidents, both time happened in the staking election algorithm.

The staking election algorithm has two parts — one off-chain calculation part, where the winners and their supports are calculated, and another verification part, where the solutions are submitted and verified.

The calculation part is expensive, and requires a heuristic algorithm. The heuristic algorithm will do several passes to get a more optimal solution. This calculation part also has an on-chain fallback, ensuring that a new validator set is always elected.

The verification part is linear time and cheap. When a solution is submitted, it contains the winners and their supports. From there, the score value is calculated with a single pass of the solution.

Unfortunately, in the recent incidents, both the calculation part and the verification part broke, due to the nominator set being large. The 20210524 incident happened due to the off-chain calculation part running out-of-memory — the overall memory running out in WebAssembly. The 20210617 incident happened due to the verification part running out-of-memory — the allocator limit was reached.

Both time, network participants were asked to switch to older node version of 0.8.30 where the native runtime can be used. In the 20210524 incident, a separate, unrelated second issue was caused because of the downgrade, which you can read in the 20210524 postmortem.


The two parts of the election algorithms have different causes, and we analyze them independently.

OOM of solution calculation

The solution calculation part is expensive. However, it is supposed to be off-chain. So this is essentially just a code optimization problem and we shouldn’t have any practical limit here.

OOM of solution verification

The verification part is linear time. However, it must happen on-chain. Unfortunately, as an on-chain operation, we should consider it to be quite expensive — because it is essentially a stop-the-world operation in a blockchain context. The solution must be submitted at once, with all the winners and supports information. It has to be then processed, and at least temporarily stored in memory, of its full.

The allocator limit was 16 MiB before the 20210617 incident. Assuming it was not due to other optimization bottleneck, this does pose a theoretical limit for how many nominators we can support given the current algorithm, even if we delegate full block and full WebAssembly memory to the election algorithm. It will be at most x256 size of the current number of nominators, and in reality probably much less.


Current known proposed or implemented fixes of the OOM problem. Note that none of the fixes can completely deal with the issue, due to the nature of stop-the-world operation of the verification part. It either optimizes memory usages or WebAssembly executions (leaving the essence of the algorithm unchanged) or imposes on-chain limits that have the corresponding centralization concerns.

Bump the memory limits and implement a better allocator

The memory limits currently imposed on the runtime is still much lower than what the WebAssembly executor allows. Thus most of the current immediate problem can be fixed by bumping the memory limit. The current allocator for WebAssembly runtime is also not the most efficient. A better allocator would also help a lot in this case.

This is how currently the 20210524 incident and the 20210617 incident are fixed, in #8892 and #9102.

Remove the on-chain fallback for solution calculation

Solution calculation is expensive. Thus doing it on-chain is dangerous — a bomb waiting to be triggered. When no solution is submitted off-chain, the election is skipped and we continue to use the current validator set. The election is delayed till later.

This is currently implemented in #8912.

Impose minimum staking bond limits for nominators

By imposing a minimum staking bond limit, it limits the number of nominators that can participate in staking. The obvious issue of this is that it encourages users to form pools off-chain, which leads to varying degrees of centralization. As networks grow larger, the centralization concern will become more and more pressing.

This is currently implemented in #8920.

Delegated nominated proof of stake

Instead of pushing smaller stakers off-chain, they can be encouraged to delegate their nominations on-chain to another nominator. This indirection of delegation is still not ideal, but it addresses some of the centralization concerns above by still encouraging users to at least hold their own wallets.