Table of contents

Backward compatibility

Overview of backward compatibility issues in Ethereum and Ethereum Classic.

In this section, we discuss the issue of backward compatibility. We first give an overview of the definition, the issue behind the definition, and then go on to discuss various proposals.

Definition and spectrum

In the context of Ethereum, backward compatibility means that when new feature upgrades or hard forks are deployed, existing on-chain smart contracts should not break. This seems like an easy enough definition. However, there are many subtle ways a contract can be broken.

  • Transaction inclusion issue: a smart contract may have a function that takes a relatively high amount of gas to finish execution. However, the block gas limit may change to a value lower than the gas required. This can either be due to miners voting down the gas limit, or a hard cap being introduced in a hard fork.

  • Unused opcode issue: a smart contract may have made some assumptions about an unused opcodes, intentionally or unintentionally. When a new opcode is introduced and changes a previously unused opcode’s meaning, the contract can be broken.

  • Compiler and contract specific gas limit issue: a hard fork may change gas costs of certain opcodes. The Solidity compiler or the smart contract may have some fixed hard-coded gas limit, for example, gas stipend. Previous assumptions about those fixed gas limit does not hold any more, either causing vulnerabilities (re-entry attack) or freezing the contract.

  • EVM structural change issue: structural changes such as removal of opcodes, or control flow modification, may change semantics of EVM and completely break a set of contracts.

It is generally agreed that transaction inclusion issue is something that discussions about backward compaibility can safely ignore, because unless a hard cap is introcued, gas limit can be changed back, and it’s ultimately miners' decisions whether to include a transaction or not. Unused opcode issue is slightly controversial in whether it should be addressed. The usual argument supporting ignoring this issue is that we already have a designated invalid opcode. However, it is only a convention, and we do have proposals that enforce this convention on-chain.

Backward compaibility of compiler and contract specific gas limit issue and EVM structural change issue are things that people generally agreed should be addressed. The only slight controversial point is when we should address compiler and contract specific gas limit issue now. Some argued that because Ethereum is still an experiment, we can still afford breaking smart contracts and move on, while others argued that the issue should be addressed now.

Account versioning

Account versioning is the primary and fundamental way to address backward compatibility issues. Multiple account versioning proposals exist, but in essence, they try to do one simple thing — associate all on-chain smart contracts with version numbers. With this version number, we can enable different EVM rules when executing code under different version numbers, and thus ensure backward compatibility.

Code prefix

Proposals: 26-VER, EIP-154, EIP-1707

The earliest attempt to do versioning is through code prefix. This is, basically, prefix bytes when deploying code on-chain. When decoding on-chain code, if we encounter a particular prefix, then we assume a code has a particular version number.

This proposal is really simple to implement. However, the issue is that people can deploy smart contracts of legacy version, which accidentally or intentionally have the code prefix. If a validation process is added together with a code prefix, then that validation process can be bypassed completely, thus creating security issues.

RLP fields

Proposals: 43-VER, EIP-1702

The most accepted variation of account versioning is probably through RLP field. In Ethereum, account state are stored using a mapping from an address to account data. Account data currently contains 4 RLP fields — nonce, balance, code hash and storage root. The proposal adds an additional version field, so that the account data has 5 RLP fields.

The original concern for using RLP field is that implementation-wise it may require many engineering efforts. However, it turned out that changing account data RLP fields is a relatively simple change, with around 200 LOC change in Parity Ethereum. Currently, major clients like Geth, Parity Ethereum and Besu all have basic account versioning support of this variation.

Special contract

Proposals: 46-VER

The final variation of account versioning is to store the account version in a designated smart contract’s storage field. Before accessing a contract, we fetch the corresponding storage field from the special contract’s storage, and use that as the version number.

This requires slightly less engineering efforts to carry out compared with account versioning using RLP fields. However, the drawback of this variation lies in performance — after the change, all contract state access must have one additional trie access to the special contract, in order to fetch the version.

Considerations on contract creations

Proposals: 44-VERTXN, 45-VEROP, 46-VER

An issue related to account versioning is that when doing contract creations, either through CREATE opcodes, or through contract creation transactions, how do we determine the new contract’s version. For versioning through code prefix, because the prefix always exists, thus we can always fetch that and use it as the version.

For versioning through RLP fields and special contract, we can by default make the created contract to have the same version as parent contract, or to always be the latest version. Extensions like 44-VERTXN, 45-VEROP, and VCREATE exists to allow additional information to be passed for version in contract creation process.

Forward compatibility

Account versioning solves most of the backward compatibility issues. However, with account versioning alone, we will require too much engineering efforts.

EVM forward compatibility

The Ethereum and Ethereum Classic hard fork schedule is usually every 6 months. If we adopt account versioning alone, we will need to introduce a new version every 6 months, which is not really sustainable. Proposals to address this issue have been proposed, to make the EVM forward-compatible. See [Forward-compatible EVM](./ for more discussions on this issue.

Solidity postfix

Proposals: EIP-2327

Currently, Solidity compiler will put a postfix of a compiler metadata at the end of a contract, during every contract deployment. Solidity compiler thinks that it’s posting data, but it’s interpreted on-chain as code. As a result, when unused opcodes are disabled, it will break this workflow of Solidity.

Proposals such as EIP-2327 exist to fix this issue, by adding a new BEGINDATA opcode. Everything after the opcode is strictly considered to be data.


Proposals: EIP-2341

The forward compatible EVM require a one-time backward incompatible change. As a result, it has to be bundled with account versioning. We deploy version 0 as the legacy version, and freeze it, and version 1 as the forward-compatible version, and adopt the above changes. From this point on, new feature upgrades, such as new opcodes and gas cost recalibration, can be adopted directly on the forward-compatible version, without defining any new versions.

Only requiring two versions will help a lot in terms of reducing engineering complexity.

Legacy repricing and encouraging usage of forward compatible version

This is further discussed in a standalone article.

One issue often popped up for discussions related to forward-compatible EVM is how we deal with the legacy version. After all, a factory contract can be pre-deployed when forward-compatible EVM is in place, thus allow indefinite usage of legacy version.

The answer to this issue lies in the fact that we still support the legacy version. Deploying new contracts as legacy version or continuing to use legacy version contracts should always be valid operations. We just encourage usage of the forward compatible EVM.

As long as there are no known EVM vulnerabilities, using legacy versions is always fine. If there are vulnerabilities, we need emergency hard fork to patch it in legacy versions and backward compatibility has to be broken anyway. On the other hand, we can do changes such as systematically decrease opcode gas cost, so that older account versions are slightly more expensive to use, and contracts are better off migrating to the forward-compatible EVM version when it is possible, so as to encourage use of new versions.

To give a practical example, consider we decide to apply EIP-1884 (which is known to break backwared compatibiliy on Ethereum network, and addresses a potential exploit in trie access). In the current EIP-1884 specs, we increase certain opcode’s gas cost, but note that this is functionally equivalent to decrease other opcode’s gas cost. We apply EIP-1884 as follows:

  • In legacy EVM (version 0), we do nothing.

  • In forward-compatible EVM (version 1), we apply EIP-1884 by decreasing other opcode’s gas cost.

After this is done, we make sure to inform miners to configure their client to set the block gas limit according to the forward-compatible EVM gas cost config. Note that this is something that has to be done when we re-calibrate gas cost anyway, no matter whether account versioning is in place. When hard fork happens:

  • In forward-compatible EVM, any exploit is fixed, because as noted earlier, while we do not change gas cost of SLOAD, etc, we decreased gas cost of all other opcodes, which is functionality equivalent to increasing gas cost of SLOAD, etc.

  • In legacy EVM, the situation is that SLOAD gas cost equal to the forward-compatible EVM, while other opcode gas cost is more expensive compared with the forward-compatible EVM. The gas config becomes in all cases more expensive compared with forward-compatible EVM. As a result, the exploit also cannot happen.

This method certainly involves a slight increase in implementation complexity. But once things move forward to the forward-compatible EVM, we can expect less and less of this when we do gas cost changes and things can move more smoothly.

On this page

  • Forward-compatible EVM: Design of a forward-compatible EVM that will not break contracts when applying feature upgrades.
  • Leaky abstraction of gas: In this article, we show that based on current account models of Ethereum, gas metering is a <em>leaky abstraction</em>. It&#8217;s impossible to completely hide the effects of gas cost, with or without account versioning. Even if retracting gas cost is hard, according to Hyrum&#8217;s Law, smart contracts will still choose to depend on it, if they can, and thus results in unexpected breakage.
  • Legacy opcode repricing: Preserving backward compatibility for opcode repricing in legacy version EVM.
  • Account versioning: This defines a method of hard forking while maintaining the exact functionality of existing account by allowing multiple versions of the virtual machines to execute in the same block. This is also useful to define future account state structures when we introduce the on-chain WebAssembly virtual machine.